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FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT
A human right with three basic elements:
freedom of movement within a country, the right
to leave any country and return to one’s own
country, and the freedom to move in between
countries with arrangements for that purpose.
A person who is not considered a national by any
state under the operations of its law. A stateless
person lacks those rights attributable to the
protection of a state, has no right of sojourn in
the state of residence, and has no right of return.
A U.S. visa allows the bearer to apply
for entry to the U.S. in classifications
like student, visitor, or temporary
worker. It does not confer the right
to enter the U.S.
SOME KEY WORDS ON THE THEME OF MIGRATION
One gray whale made a journey
of about 14,000 miles from
Russia to Mexico and back.
Humpback whales also make
astounding trips of around 6,000
miles, round trip, from Hawaii to
Alaska at the blistering speed
of about 3 mph.
ELEPHAN T SEALS
This pinniped’s commute
takes him some 13,000 miles
twice a year from California
out into the Pacific. Elephant
seals also hold the record for
diving deeper and longer
than other seals, sea lions,
and other pinnipeds.
These bitty little guys travel more
than 11,000 miles during their annual
migrations from India to the Horn
of Africa. They can make 4,400 of
those miles without landing. Globe
skimmers are also the highest-flying
dragonfly, having been found at 6,200
meters in the Himalayas.
Fleeing scarce food, these Arctic
rodents will take off, but not off
cliffs. Lemmings may encounter
the odd lake or stream and
they can swim, though if they
get soaked through, they
can die. That famous Disney
documentary scene? Fake.
These ocean drifters practice a
diel vertical migration, or an up-
and-down migration. When the
sun shines, zooplankton dive deep
only to pop up at night to feed on
phytoplankton. Some examples
of zooplankton are the larvae of
larger crabs and other marine
animals, jellyfish, and krill.
Not first on your list of
migrating animals, you say?
This surprising migrant can
range as far as 33 miles in
Canada, driven by a lack of
food, resources, and warmth.
These insects can travel up to 3,000
miles on their delicate orange-
and-black wings. Monarchs are the
only butterflies to have a two-way
migration — from the oyamel forests
of Mexico back up to the United
States. A complete migration takes up
to four generations of butterflies.
These huge horned hoofstock
travel in 500- to 1,000-mile
circuits around the Serengeti.
Herds can stretch to 25 miles
long and include more than
1 million wildebeest, usually
joined by thousands of gazelle,
zebra, and eland.
Da-dum, da-dum, da-dum times
about 10,000 miles. Scientists in
2004 tracked a great white named
Nicole across the Indian Ocean
t wice. She went an estimated
12,400 miles — 6,700 of them
while tagged from November
2003 to February 2004.
The granddaddy of all migrants,
the Arctic tern covers 44,000-
56,000 miles a year from
Greenland or the Netherlands to
Antarctica. Given the birds live
about 30 years, on average, that
means it flies about 1. 3 million
miles in its lifetime.
WILDEBEEST GREAT WHITE SHARKS MONARCH BUTTERFLIES ARCTIC TERNS
LONG WAY HOME